ITV 'THIS MORNING' SHOW
Jane joined television presenters, Ben Shepherd and Rochelle Humes, on ITV's 'This Morning' show to debunk a few of the Apollo 11 Moon landing conspiracy theories.
When viewing the full interview here, please note that the actual answers Jane gave to the questions accompanying the clip are below:
THE FLAG MOVING IN THE WIND
In footage and photos from the moon landing it looks as if the USA flag that was placed into the moon is flapping in the wind. However, that would be impossible since there's no air on the moon.
JANE SAYS: "The laws of physics apply everywhere, including the Moon. The flag, purchased from a local Houston store for $5.50, was hemmed along the top and hung from a horizontal crossbar that was itself fixed to a vertical pole. It moved only when moved by one of the two astronauts. Since there was no air resistance, any resultant fluttering of the flag lasted a little longer than it would have done in an atmosphere."
THERE ARE NO STARS IN THE PHOTOGRAPHS
No stars show up in the background of any photographs and the angle and colours of the shadows in photographs from the moon are inconsistent, suggesting artificial lights were used to illuminate a set.
JANE SAYS: "The brightness of the lunar day overpowers faint light. The Hasselblad cameras carried by the two astronauts were set for short shutter speeds and small apertures to capture this bright foreground. Any faint stars were hidden by the foreground light in the same way that artificial lighting on Earth prevents seeing brighter stars when gazing at the sky at night. Capturing faint starlight with a camera requires long exposures and wide apertures."
THE SHADOWS MAKE IT LOOK LIKE A FILM SET
The footage shows shadows falling in different directions. Some conspiracy theorists think this is proof that the Moon Landing was staged in a studio with multiple light sources.
JANE SAYS: "Again, this returns us to photography. Non-parallel shadows from a single light source, ie, the Sun, are the result of the Moon’s undulating landscape of dips, hills and mountains. Lunar topography influences shadow length. The Moon itself, reflecting 8% of the Sun’s light (albedo), illuminates so much more on the surface, hence Aldrin appearing so bright when descending the LM ladder whereas one could be forgiven for thinking he would be in shadow. ‘Earthshine’ and the reflectivity of the Kapton foil on the LM also contribute to shadow effects.”
THE ROCKET LANDING LEFT NO TRACKS
When the lunar module descended onto the moon's surface, it didn't leave a crater from the rocket blast that slowed its descent.
JANE SAYS: "The spacecraft touched, manually controlled by Armstrong, in a steady manner, resulting in little disturbance of the lunar surface. Craters are the result of more high-speed, heavier impacts."
THE FOOTPRINTS DON'T MATCH THE SPACE BOOTS
Many have compared a photo of Neil Armstrong's Apollo 11 spacesuit boot with his footprint on the moon. The outlines do not match. Others also argue that footprints need moisture to form, of which there is none on the moon.
JANE SAYS: "The footprint typically imaged is that of Aldrin not Armstrong. Aldrin took the image of his own boot to allow scientists to study the tensile strength of the lunar surface. The tread on Aldrin’s space boots match those captured by Armstrong when Aldrin was descending the LM ladder. The tread on Armstrong’s boots matches those of his lunar surface prints. Both astronauts strapped two large overshoes, with patterned soles, onto their spacesuits before exiting the LM. These gave greater protection against tears and the insidious, powdery lunar dust."
WHY HAS NOBODY BEEN ON THE MOON SINCE?
No one has walked on the moon in almost 50 years. 1972 was the last time man has been on the moon via the Apollo 17.
JANE SAYS: "The simple answer is - we are going to go back soon. NASA is planning to have women and men on the Moon within the next five years. A lunar base, or ‘gateway’, will be established and will form the stepping stone to the planet Mars."